Professor Ruth E Freeman

Professor of Dental Public Health Research, Hon Consultant in DPH


Division of Oral Health Sciences
Dental Hospital & School
Park Place
Dundee DD1 4HR


GDC No. 53166

Phone Number:

+44 (0)1382381 717

Email Address:

Ruth Freeman qualified in dentistry in 1979 at The Queen’s University of Belfast. Under the tutelage of Professor Neil Swallow, she completed her PhD in 1983.  She studied at the University of London where she completed her training in Dental Public Health.  She is a Member of the British Psychoanalytic Council and a Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health, Royal College of Physicians (UK).  Ruth worked as a lecturer in Dental Public Health and Dental Practice at University College London with Professor Aubrey Sheiham before returning to Queen’s University of Belfast where she was Professor of Dental Public Health.  She is currently Professor of Dental Public Health Research and Honorary Consultant in Dental Public Health. She is Director of the Oral Health and Health Research Programme and with Professor Jan Clarkson is Co-Director of the Dental Health Services Research Unit at the University of Dundee.

The Oral Health and Health Research Programme forms one of the major research themes within DHSRU. This Programme of research uses the MRC framework for complex interventions as a structure from which the research evidence is systematically reviewed, modelling of change theory conducted and feasibility trials piloted. The research programme is underpinned by psychodynamic principles and uses a mixed methods approach. The purpose of this research programme is to reduce health inequality by addressing oral health as an indication and predictor of health and psycho-social functioning. Researching the evidence-base and using a mixed methods approach ensures that by understanding people’s main concerns will permit tailoring and achieve engagement with health interventions for those from socially excluded groups. It achieves this aim by providing high quality research and being successful in securing CSO funding, Research Council funding and grant income from the Scottish Government Health Department.

Current research within the Oral Health and Health Research Programme includes:

  • Developing an inventory to Assess Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER): Funded by Childsmile Programme: SGHD. [Post-Doc Research Fellow: Dr S Nanjappa]
  • Smile4Life - Developing, implementing and evaluating an oral health preventive programme for homeless populations across Scotland: funded by SGHD. [Research Fellow: E. Coles]
  • Scottish Oral Health Improvement Prison Programme (SOHIPP): Developing, implementing and evaluating an oral health preventive programme for prison populations across Scotland: funded by SGHD. [Senior Research Fellow: TBA: Research Assistant T. Akbar]
  • Developing an intervention to evaluate a context-based, teacher-led dietary programme to promote healthier snacking behaviour in school children: funded by CSO. [CSO Post-Doctoral Fellow and PI: Dr S Chambers]
  • Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries: an investigation into mediating and moderating factors: funded by NES. [Clinical Lecturer and StR in Dental Public Health: S Carson]
  • Cope-a-lot-Scot: Exploring the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to test the impact of a computer assisted on-line cognitive behaviour therapy intervention for child dental anxiety: funded by CSO. [Research Fellow: TBA]
  • Stories at the Dentist: Research in the Wild 2012: funded by EPSRC [with Professor A Waller: PI: Research Assistant TBA]

Director of the Undergraduate Programme on Dental Public Health, Behavioural Sciences and Communication.

Professor Freeman leads the development and delivery of the Masters in Dental Public Health.

Humphris, GM & Freeman, R 2012, 'Measuring children's dental anxiety' Evidence-Based Dentistry, vol 13, no. 4, pp. 102-103. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ebd.6400887

Freeman, R, Clarke, HMM & Humphris, GM 2007, 'Conversion tables for the Corah and Modified Dental Anxiety Scales' Community Dental Health, vol 24, no. 1, pp. 49-54.

Freeman, R & Stevens, A 2008, 'Nursing caries and buying time: an emerging theory of prolonged bottle feeding' Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol 36, no. 5, pp. 425-433. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2008.00425.x

Humphris, GM, Freeman, R & Clarke, HMM 2004, 'Risk perception of oral cancer in smokers attending primary care: a randomised controlled trial' Oral Oncology, vol 40, no. 9, pp. 916-924. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2004.04.008

Fernandes, F, McConnachie, T, Carson, S, Kennedy, J, Freeman, R, Laidlaw, A & Humphris, G 2015, 'An exploration of inter-professional learning with nursing, medical and dental students engaging with marginalised groups in experiential communication skills teaching' 5th National Scottish Medical Education Conference - Delivering Professionalism and Excellence in Scottish Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 27/04/15 - 28/04/15, .

Almondes, N, Downie, D, Cinar, AB, Richards, D & Freeman, R 2017, 'Is health coaching effective in changing the health status and behaviour of prisoners?-a systematic review protocol' Systematic Reviews, vol 6, 127, pp. 1-5. DOI: 10.1186/s13643-017-0524-5

Zhou, Y, Black, R, Freeman, R, Herron, D, Humphris, G, Quinn, S, Scott, L & Waller, A 2014, 'Applying the VR-CoDES in the dental context involving patients with complex communication needs' 12th International Conference on Communication in Healthcare , Amsterdam, Netherlands, 28/09/14 - 1/10/14, .

Humphris, G, Crawford, JR, Hill, K, Gilbert, A & Freeman, R 2013, 'UK population norms for the modified dental anxiety scale with percentile calculator: adult dental health survey 2009 results' BMC Oral Health, vol 13, 29.

Akbar, T, Turner, S, Themessl-Huber, M, Richards, D & Freeman, R 2012, 'The health promoting prison can it improve oral health? an evaluation of an oral health improvement project for high security prisoners' International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, vol 50, no. 4, pp. 169-177. DOI: 10.1080/14635240.2012.702507

Hayden, C, Bowler, JO, Chambers, S, Freeman, R, Humphris, G, Richards, D & Cecil, JE 2013, 'Obesity and dental caries in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.' Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol 41, no. 4, pp. 289-308. DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12014

Viinikangas, A, Lahti, S, Tolvanen, M, Freeman, R, Humphris, G & Joukamaa, M 2009, 'Dental anxiety and alexithymia: Gender differences' Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol 67, no. 1, pp. 13-18. DOI: 10.1080/00016350802459264

Freeman, R, Oliver, M, Bunting, G, Kirk, J & Saunderson, W 2001, 'Addressing children's oral health inequalities in Northern Ireland: a research-practice-community partnership initiative' Public Health Reports, vol 116, no. 6, pp. 617-625.

Beaton, L & Freeman, R 2016, 'Oral health promotion and homelessness: a theory-based approach to understanding processes of implementation and adoption' Health Education Journal, vol 75, no. 2, pp. 184-197. DOI: 10.1177/0017896915571144

Cinar, AB, Freeman, R & Schou, L 2017, 'A new complementary approach for oral health and diabetes management: health coaching' International Dental Journal. DOI: 10.1111/idj.12334

Zhou, Y, Black, R, Freeman, R, Herron, D, Humphris, G, Menzies, R, Quinn, S, Scott, L & Waller, A 2014, 'Applying the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) in the dental context involving patients with complex communication needs: an exploratory study' Patient Education and Counseling, vol 97, no. 2, pp. 180-187. DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2014.07.023

Freeman, R, Lush, C, MacGillveray, S, Themessl-Huber, M & Richards, D 2013, 'Dental therapists/hygienists working in remote-rural primary care: a structured review of effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, acceptability and affordability' International Dental Journal, vol 63, no. 2, pp. 103-112. DOI: 10.1111/idj.12025

Tripathee, S, Akbar, T, Richards, D, Themessl-Huber, M & Freeman, R 2012, 'The relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries: a systematic review.' Health Education Journal. DOI: 10.1177/0017896912450247

Ekins, R & Freeman, R (eds) 1998, Selected Writings: Anna Freud. Penguin Books, London.

Smith, PA & Freeman, R 2009, 'Living in a sweetie culture: Scottish parents' difficulties in maintaining their children's oral health' Health Education Journal, vol 68, no. 4, pp. 255-265. DOI: 10.1177/0017896909349277

Chambers, SA, Freeman, R, Anderson, AS & MacGillivray, S 2015, 'Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: a systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures' Preventive Medicine, vol 75, pp. 32-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.02.011

Yuan, S, Carson, SJ, Rooksby, M, McKerrow, J, Lush, C, Humphris, G & Freeman, R 2017, 'Does dental undergraduate education and postgraduate training enable intention to provide inhalation sedation in primary dental care?: A path analytical exploration' European Journal of Dental Education, vol 21, no. 3, pp. 193-199. DOI: 10.1111/eje.12200

Carson, SJ, Abuhaloob, L, Richards, D, Hector, MP & Freeman, R 2017, 'The relationship between childhood body weight and dental caries experience: an umbrella systematic review protocol' Systematic Reviews, vol 6, 216, pp. 1-5. DOI: 10.1186/s13643-017-0610-8


Conference Presentations

Freeman., R., Chambers, S., Nanjappa, S., Fulke, S., and Lindsay, R. (2012) The Chatterbox intervention to enable children dental registration and attendance: Collaboration between dentistry and design.  Faculty of Public Health Conference, 8-9 November, Crieff.

Freeman., R., Nanjappa, S., Chambers, S., Fulke, S., and Lindsay, R. (2012) Chatterbox: Customising services around dental health care.  Childsmile Symposium, 19 September, Glasgow.

Conference Extract

 Herron, D., Menzies, R., Waller, A.,  Black, R., Quinn, S., Freeman, R., Zhou, Y., Humphris, G., Scott, L., Elliott, G. Involving Clinical Staff in the design of a support tool to improve dental communication for patients with intellectual disabilities. 16th Biennial Conference of ISAAC, July 19-24, 2014, Lisbon, Portugal. 

Invited talks: 2006-2012

  1. Freeman R. Fruit juice, diet drinks and alcopops: strategies for erosion prevention. European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Amsterdam. The Netherlands. 2006
  2. Freeman R. Profile of a dentist in the oral health care team in countries with emerging economies. DentEd III. Krakow, Poland, 2006.
  3. Freeman R. Dental anxiety and dental phobia: identification and management. Annual Meeting of the Finnish Dental Association. Helsinki. Finland, 2006.
  4. Freeman R. Oral health care team in countries with emerging economies. DentEd III. Dublin, Ireland, 2007
  5. Freeman R. Dentistry and Psychoanalysis: strange bedfellows? University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2008
  6. Freeman R. Improving compliance: understanding and encouraging patient motivation. GSK-sponsored Symposium: International Association for Dental Research Miami, Florida 2009
  7. Freeman R. Development of the millennium oral health goals 2020: a theoretical and historical perspective National Symposium: ‘Millennium Oral Health Goals 2020: Revisiting the Road Map. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpar 2009
  8. Freeman R. The progress of the millennium global oral health goals in Scotland: how are the marginalized groups affected? National Symposium: ‘Millennium Oral Health Goals 2020: Revisiting the Road Map. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpar 2009
  9. Freeman R. Differentiating dental phobia from dental anxiety: strategies for dental practice. ‘Health and Society’ External Seminar Series, University of Bristol. Bristol. 2009
  10. Freeman R. Doing Best for Children: An emerging grounded theory of parents’ policing strategies to regulate between-meal snacking. Food, Oral Health and Social Interaction Workshop, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick. 2010.
  11. Freeman, R. Adhering with Childsmile: effects of maternal identity and social networks. University of Newcastle, Ourimbah NSW, Australia. 2012
  12. Freeman, R. Access to dental healthcare for socially excluded groups. BASCD Spring Presidential Meeting, London. 2012
  13. Freeman R. Managing dental anxiety: effective communication in dental practice. Oral Health and Communication Symposium. European Association for Communication and Health. University of St Andrews, St Andrews, 2012.
  14. Freeman R. From maternal concerns to the Chatterbox intervention: exploring adherence and increasing access to Childsmile Practice. Childsmile Symposium. University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 2012
  15. Freeman R. Differentiating dental anxiety from dental phobia: referral criteria for dentally anxious children and their parents? British Society of Paediatric Dentistry. Glasgow. 2012
  16. Freeman R. Behavioural aspects of health in the 21st century. British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry. Spring Presidential Meeting, Buxton. 2013
  17. Freeman R. The changing paradigm: a patient-centred approach for older people. NHS Education for Scotland: Dental Team Discovery Day Series. Dundee. 2013
  18. Freeman R. Occupational stress and depression. Northern Ireland Medical & Dental Training Agency: Let’s Talk Series. Belfast 2014
  19. Freeman R. Frightened of the Dentist: Dental observations and psychoanalytic explanations. Fife Psychiatric Teachin: Summer 2014. Cupar 2014
  20. Freeman R. Oral Health & Homelessness: an agenda for engagement? Homeless Action Scotland. NASUWT Edinburgh 2014
  21. Freeman R. Phobic services: who needs them? National Association for Dentistry in Health Authorities and Trusts, BDA London. 2014

Published Reports 2006-2012

  1. Chambers S, Turner S, Freeman R. Special Smiles Dental Project. Evaluation Report and Executive Summary. Dundee. DHSRU. 2009
  2. Chambers S, Freeman R. Developing an inventory to Access Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER 1): a qualitative exploration. Dundee. DHSRU. 2010
  3. Chambers S, Freeman R. Developing an inventory to Access Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER 2): A validity and reliability study of the Parental Dental Concerns Scale. Dundee. DHSRU. 2011
  4. Freeman, R., Wanyonyi, L.K., Humphris, G., Wright, A. The preliminary development of a Communication, cues and framing MIXed methods research programme to promote motivation and compliance for fluoride toothpaste use. ComMIX Interim Report. Dundee. DHSRU. 2010
  5. Chan, K.P.S., Bonner, B.C., and Freeman, R.E. NHS Highland: Modelling orthodontic treatment needs. Dundee. DHSRU. 2011
  6. Freeman R, Lush C. Richards D. Effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, acceptability and cost of dental therapist-hygienists working in remote-rural primary dental care. Dundee. DHSRU. 2012