Ruth Freeman qualified in dentistry in 1979 at The Queen’s University of Belfast. Under the tutelage of Professor Neil Swallow, she completed her PhD in 1983. She studied at the University of London where she completed her training in Dental Public Health. She is a Member of the British Psychoanalytic Council and a Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health, Royal College of Physicians (UK). Ruth worked as a lecturer in Dental Public Health and Dental Practice at University College London with Professor Aubrey Sheiham before returning to Queen’s University of Belfast where she was Professor of Dental Public Health. She is currently Professor of Dental Public Health Research and Honorary Consultant in Dental Public Health. She is Director of the Oral Health and Health Research Programme and with Professor Jan Clarkson is Co-Director of the Dental Health Services Research Unit at the University of Dundee.
The Oral Health and Health Research Programme forms one of the major research themes within DHSRU. This Programme of research uses the MRC framework for complex interventions as a structure from which the research evidence is systematically reviewed, modelling of change theory conducted and feasibility trials piloted. The research programme is underpinned by psychodynamic principles and uses a mixed methods approach. The purpose of this research programme is to reduce health inequality by addressing oral health as an indication and predictor of health and psycho-social functioning. Researching the evidence-base and using a mixed methods approach ensures that by understanding people’s main concerns will permit tailoring and achieve engagement with health interventions for those from socially excluded groups. It achieves this aim by providing high quality research and being successful in securing CSO funding, Research Council funding and grant income from the Scottish Government Health Department.
Current research within the Oral Health and Health Research Programme includes:
- Developing an inventory to Assess Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER): Funded by Childsmile Programme: SGHD. [Post-Doc Research Fellow: Dr S Nanjappa]
- Smile4Life - Developing, implementing and evaluating an oral health preventive programme for homeless populations across Scotland: funded by SGHD. [Research Fellow: E. Coles]
- Scottish Oral Health Improvement Prison Programme (SOHIPP): Developing, implementing and evaluating an oral health preventive programme for prison populations across Scotland: funded by SGHD. [Senior Research Fellow: TBA: Research Assistant T. Akbar]
- Developing an intervention to evaluate a context-based, teacher-led dietary programme to promote healthier snacking behaviour in school children: funded by CSO. [CSO Post-Doctoral Fellow and PI: Dr S Chambers]
- Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries: an investigation into mediating and moderating factors: funded by NES. [Clinical Lecturer and StR in Dental Public Health: S Carson]
- Cope-a-lot-Scot: Exploring the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to test the impact of a computer assisted on-line cognitive behaviour therapy intervention for child dental anxiety: funded by CSO. [Research Fellow: TBA]
- Stories at the Dentist: Research in the Wild 2012: funded by EPSRC [with Professor A Waller: PI: Research Assistant TBA]
Zhou, Y, Black, R, Freeman, R, Herron, D, Humphris, G, Menzies, R, Quinn, S, Scott, L & Waller, A 2014, 'Applying the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) in the dental context involving patients with complex communication needs: an exploratory study' Patient Education and Counseling, vol 97, no. 2, pp. 180-187. DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2014.07.023
Freeman, R, Lush, C, MacGillveray, S, Themessl-Huber, M & Richards, D 2013, 'Dental therapists/hygienists working in remote-rural primary care: a structured review of effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, acceptability and affordability' International Dental Journal, vol 63, no. 2, pp. 103-112. DOI: 10.1111/idj.12025
Tripathee, S, Akbar, T, Richards, D, Themessl-Huber, M & Freeman, R 2012, 'The relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries: a systematic review.' Health Education Journal. DOI: 10.1177/0017896912450247
Ekins, R & Freeman, R (eds) 1998, Selected Writings: Anna Freud. Penguin Books, London.
Smith, PA & Freeman, R 2009, 'Living in a sweetie culture: Scottish parents' difficulties in maintaining their children's oral health' Health Education Journal, vol 68, no. 4, pp. 255-265. DOI: 10.1177/0017896909349277
Chambers, SA, Freeman, R, Anderson, AS & MacGillivray, S 2015, 'Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: a systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures' Preventive Medicine, vol 75, pp. 32-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.02.011
Yuan, S, Carson, SJ, Rooksby, M, McKerrow, J, Lush, C, Humphris, G & Freeman, R 2017, 'Does dental undergraduate education and postgraduate training enable intention to provide inhalation sedation in primary dental care?: A path analytical exploration' European Journal of Dental Education, vol 21, no. 3, pp. 193-199. DOI: 10.1111/eje.12200
Carson, SJ, Abuhaloob, L, Richards, D, Hector, MP & Freeman, R 2017, 'The relationship between childhood body weight and dental caries experience: an umbrella systematic review protocol' Systematic Reviews, vol 6, 216, pp. 1-5. DOI: 10.1186/s13643-017-0610-8
Herron, D, Menzies, R, Waller, A, Black, R, Quinn, S, Freeman, R, Zhou, Y, Humphris, GM, Scott, L & Elliot, G 2014, 'A new tool to support communication between dentist and patients with intellectual and communication disabilities' 16th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication , Lisbon, Portugal, Portugal, 19/07/14 - 24/07/14, .
Collins, J & Freeman, R 2007, 'Homeless in North and West Belfast: an oral health needs assessment' British Dental Journal, vol 202, no. 12, pp. E31. DOI: 10.1038/bdj.2007.473
Turner, S, Chambers, SA & Freeman, R 2012, 'Measuring dental anxiety in children with complex and additional support needs using the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (faces) (MCDASf)' Journal of Disability and Oral Health, vol 13, no. 1, pp. 3-10.
Burke, FJT & Freeman, R 2004, Preparing for dental practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Howard, KE & Freeman, R 2009, 'An evaluation of the PALS after treatment modelling intervention to reduce dental anxiety in child dental patients' International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, vol 19, no. 4, pp. 233-242. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2009.00977.x
Carson, S & Freeman, R 2014, 'Fact or fiction: does a relationship exist between free sugars, dental caries and body weight?' Dental Update, vol 41, no. 10, pp. 862-866.
Stefani, G, Freeman, R & Lloyd, G 2016, Alternatives to imprisonment in Europe: promising practices and tools: a training package. Reducing Prison Population: advanced tools of justice in Europe, no. JUST/2013/JPEN/AG/4489, Associazione Comunità Papa Giovanni XXIII, Rimini.
Abuhaloob, L, Carson, S, Richards, D & Freeman, R 2018, 'Community-based nutrition intervention to promote oral health and restore healthy body weight in refugee children: a scoping review' Community Dental Health. DOI: 10.1922/CDH_4188Abuhaloob08
Nanjappa, S, Chambers, S, Marcenes, W, Richards, D & Freeman, R 2014, 'A theory led narrative review of one-to-one health interventions: the influence of attachment style and client-provider relationship on client adherence' Health Education Research, vol 29, no. 5, pp. 740-754. DOI: 10.1093/her/cyu029
Freeman, R 2007, 'Viewing positive images of dentistry reduces anticipatory anxiety in children' Evidence-Based Dentistry, vol 8, no. 2, pp. 47. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ebd.6400493
Coles, E, Watt, C & Freeman, R 2012, 'Something to smile about: an evaluation of a capacity-building oral health intervention for staff working with homeless people' Health Education Journal, vol 72, no. 2, pp. 146-155. DOI: 10.1177/0017896912437291
Freeman, R 2009, 'Health promotion and the randomised controlled trial: a square peg in a round hole?' BMC Oral Health, vol 9, no. 1. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-9-1
Freeman, R & Oliver, M 2009, 'Do school break-time policies influence child dental health and snacking behaviours? An evaluation of a primary school programme' British Dental Journal, vol 206, no. 12, pp. 619-625. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2009.518
Stefani, G, Kronberga, I, Sile, S, Bisi, R, Sette, R, Gregori, E, Distaso, M & Freeman, R 2016, Alternatives to imprisonment in Europe: increasing understanding and promoting implementation: Guidance. Reducing Prison Population: advanced tools of justice in Europe, no. JUST/2013/JPEN/AG/4489, Associazione Comunità Papa Giovanni XXIII, Rimini.
Esa, R, Ong, AL, Humphris, G & Freeman, R 2014, 'The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach' BMC Oral Health, vol 14, 19. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-19
Freeman, R, Gorter, R, McWilliams, C & Williams, S 2007, 'A qualitative exploration of the role of gender, ethnicity and clinical experience upon dental students' interpersonal skills when interacting with dental nurses' European Journal of Dental Education, vol 11, no. 3, pp. 168-76. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2007.00443.x
Freeman, R 2012, Managing dental patients with oro-facial pain: psychodynamic explorations. in M O'Reilly-Landry (ed.), A psychodynamic understanding of modern medicine: placing the person at the centre of care. Radcliffe Publishing Limited, Oxford.
Freeman., R., Chambers, S., Nanjappa, S., Fulke, S., and Lindsay, R. (2012) The Chatterbox intervention to enable children dental registration and attendance: Collaboration between dentistry and design. Faculty of Public Health Conference, 8-9 November, Crieff.
Freeman., R., Nanjappa, S., Chambers, S., Fulke, S., and Lindsay, R. (2012) Chatterbox: Customising services around dental health care. Childsmile Symposium, 19 September, Glasgow.
Herron, D., Menzies, R., Waller, A., Black, R., Quinn, S., Freeman, R., Zhou, Y., Humphris, G., Scott, L., Elliott, G. Involving Clinical Staff in the design of a support tool to improve dental communication for patients with intellectual disabilities. 16th Biennial Conference of ISAAC, July 19-24, 2014, Lisbon, Portugal. https://www.isaac-online.org/english/conference-2014/
Invited talks: 2006-2012
- Freeman R. Fruit juice, diet drinks and alcopops: strategies for erosion prevention. European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Amsterdam. The Netherlands. 2006
- Freeman R. Profile of a dentist in the oral health care team in countries with emerging economies. DentEd III. Krakow, Poland, 2006.
- Freeman R. Dental anxiety and dental phobia: identification and management. Annual Meeting of the Finnish Dental Association. Helsinki. Finland, 2006.
- Freeman R. Oral health care team in countries with emerging economies. DentEd III. Dublin, Ireland, 2007
- Freeman R. Dentistry and Psychoanalysis: strange bedfellows? University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2008
- Freeman R. Improving compliance: understanding and encouraging patient motivation. GSK-sponsored Symposium: International Association for Dental Research Miami, Florida 2009
- Freeman R. Development of the millennium oral health goals 2020: a theoretical and historical perspective National Symposium: ‘Millennium Oral Health Goals 2020: Revisiting the Road Map. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpar 2009
- Freeman R. The progress of the millennium global oral health goals in Scotland: how are the marginalized groups affected? National Symposium: ‘Millennium Oral Health Goals 2020: Revisiting the Road Map. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpar 2009
- Freeman R. Differentiating dental phobia from dental anxiety: strategies for dental practice. ‘Health and Society’ External Seminar Series, University of Bristol. Bristol. 2009
- Freeman R. Doing Best for Children: An emerging grounded theory of parents’ policing strategies to regulate between-meal snacking. Food, Oral Health and Social Interaction Workshop, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick. 2010.
- Freeman, R. Adhering with Childsmile: effects of maternal identity and social networks. University of Newcastle, Ourimbah NSW, Australia. 2012
- Freeman, R. Access to dental healthcare for socially excluded groups. BASCD Spring Presidential Meeting, London. 2012
- Freeman R. Managing dental anxiety: effective communication in dental practice. Oral Health and Communication Symposium. European Association for Communication and Health. University of St Andrews, St Andrews, 2012.
- Freeman R. From maternal concerns to the Chatterbox intervention: exploring adherence and increasing access to Childsmile Practice. Childsmile Symposium. University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 2012
- Freeman R. Differentiating dental anxiety from dental phobia: referral criteria for dentally anxious children and their parents? British Society of Paediatric Dentistry. Glasgow. 2012
- Freeman R. Behavioural aspects of health in the 21st century. British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry. Spring Presidential Meeting, Buxton. 2013
- Freeman R. The changing paradigm: a patient-centred approach for older people. NHS Education for Scotland: Dental Team Discovery Day Series. Dundee. 2013
- Freeman R. Occupational stress and depression. Northern Ireland Medical & Dental Training Agency: Let’s Talk Series. Belfast 2014
- Freeman R. Frightened of the Dentist: Dental observations and psychoanalytic explanations. Fife Psychiatric Teachin: Summer 2014. Cupar 2014
- Freeman R. Oral Health & Homelessness: an agenda for engagement? Homeless Action Scotland. NASUWT Edinburgh 2014
- Freeman R. Phobic services: who needs them? National Association for Dentistry in Health Authorities and Trusts, BDA London. 2014
Published Reports 2006-2012
- Chambers S, Turner S, Freeman R. Special Smiles Dental Project. Evaluation Report and Executive Summary. Dundee. DHSRU. 2009
- Chambers S, Freeman R. Developing an inventory to Access Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER 1): a qualitative exploration. Dundee. DHSRU. 2010
- Chambers S, Freeman R. Developing an inventory to Access Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER 2): A validity and reliability study of the Parental Dental Concerns Scale. Dundee. DHSRU. 2011
- Freeman, R., Wanyonyi, L.K., Humphris, G., Wright, A. The preliminary development of a Communication, cues and framing MIXed methods research programme to promote motivation and compliance for fluoride toothpaste use. ComMIX Interim Report. Dundee. DHSRU. 2010
- Chan, K.P.S., Bonner, B.C., and Freeman, R.E. NHS Highland: Modelling orthodontic treatment needs. Dundee. DHSRU. 2011
- Freeman R, Lush C. Richards D. Effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, acceptability and cost of dental therapist-hygienists working in remote-rural primary dental care. Dundee. DHSRU. 2012