Ruth Freeman qualified in dentistry in 1979 at The Queen’s University of Belfast. Under the tutelage of Professor Neil Swallow, she completed her PhD in 1983. She studied at the University of London where she completed her training in Dental Public Health. She is a Member of the British Psychoanalytic Council and a Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health, Royal College of Physicians (UK). Ruth worked as a lecturer in Dental Public Health and Dental Practice at University College London with Professor Aubrey Sheiham before returning to Queen’s University of Belfast where she was Professor of Dental Public Health. She is currently Professor of Dental Public Health Research and Honorary Consultant in Dental Public Health. She is Director of the Oral Health and Health Research Programme and with Professor Jan Clarkson is Co-Director of the Dental Health Services Research Unit at the University of Dundee.
The Oral Health and Health Research Programme forms one of the major research themes within DHSRU. This Programme of research uses the MRC framework for complex interventions as a structure from which the research evidence is systematically reviewed, modelling of change theory conducted and feasibility trials piloted. The research programme is underpinned by psychodynamic principles and uses a mixed methods approach. The purpose of this research programme is to reduce health inequality by addressing oral health as an indication and predictor of health and psycho-social functioning. Researching the evidence-base and using a mixed methods approach ensures that by understanding people’s main concerns will permit tailoring and achieve engagement with health interventions for those from socially excluded groups. It achieves this aim by providing high quality research and being successful in securing CSO funding, Research Council funding and grant income from the Scottish Government Health Department.
Current research within the Oral Health and Health Research Programme includes:
- Developing an inventory to Assess Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER): Funded by Childsmile Programme: SGHD. [Post-Doc Research Fellow: Dr S Nanjappa]
- Smile4Life - Developing, implementing and evaluating an oral health preventive programme for homeless populations across Scotland: funded by SGHD. [Research Fellow: E. Coles]
- Scottish Oral Health Improvement Prison Programme (SOHIPP): Developing, implementing and evaluating an oral health preventive programme for prison populations across Scotland: funded by SGHD. [Senior Research Fellow: TBA: Research Assistant T. Akbar]
- Developing an intervention to evaluate a context-based, teacher-led dietary programme to promote healthier snacking behaviour in school children: funded by CSO. [CSO Post-Doctoral Fellow and PI: Dr S Chambers]
- Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries: an investigation into mediating and moderating factors: funded by NES. [Clinical Lecturer and StR in Dental Public Health: S Carson]
- Cope-a-lot-Scot: Exploring the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to test the impact of a computer assisted on-line cognitive behaviour therapy intervention for child dental anxiety: funded by CSO. [Research Fellow: TBA]
- Stories at the Dentist: Research in the Wild 2012: funded by EPSRC [with Professor A Waller: PI: Research Assistant TBA]
Beaton, L & Freeman, R 2016, 'Oral health promotion and homelessness: a theory-based approach to understanding processes of implementation and adoption' Health Education Journal, vol 75, no. 2, pp. 184-197., 10.1177/0017896915571144
Freeman, R 2014, ' Editor's Summary: Summary of: School bullying and traumatic dental injuries in East London adolescents ' British Dental Journal , vol 217, no. 12, pp. 688-689., 10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.1124
Zhou, Y, Black, R, Freeman, R, Herron, D, Humphris, G, Quinn, S, Scott, L & Waller, A 2014, 'Applying the VR-CoDES in the dental context involving patients with complex communication needs' 12th International Conference on Communication in Healthcare , Amsterdam, Netherlands, 28/09/14 - 1/10/14, .
Smith, PA, Themessl-Huber, M, Akbar, T, Richards, D & Freeman, R 2011, 'Summary of: What motivates dentists to work in prisons? A qualitative exploration' British Dental Journal, vol 211, no. 4, pp. 176-177. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2011.679
Duane, BG, Humphris, G, Richards, D, Okeefe, EJ, Gordon, K & Freeman, R 2014, 'Weighing up the weighted case mix tool (WCMT): a psychometric investigation using confirmatory factor analysis' Community Dental Health, vol 31, no. 4, pp. 200-206. DOI: 10.1922/CDH_3430Duane07
Akbar, T, Everington, T, Richards, D, Themessl-Huber, M & Freeman, R 2013, The evaluation of the basic cooking skills/healthy eating (BaCE) programme for young offenders at Polmont. University of Dundee, Dental Health Services Research Unit, Dundee.
Forbes, G, Freeman, R, McCombes, W & Humphris, G 2014, 'Job leaving intentions and occupation-related beliefs amongst preregistered dental nurses in Scotland: the mediating role of work engagement and personal accomplishment' Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol 42, no. 1, pp. 11-19. DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12042
Howard, KE & Freeman, R 2007, 'Reliability and validity of a faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale' International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, vol 17, no. 4, pp. 281-288. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2007.00830.x
Wanyonyi, KL, Themessl-Huber, M, Humphris, G & Freeman, R 2011, 'A systematic review and meta-analysis of face-to-face communication of tailored health messages: Implications for practice' Patient Education and Counseling, vol 85, no. 3, pp. 348-355. DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2011.02.006
Smith, PA, Themessl-Huber, M, Akbar, T, Richards, D & Freeman, R 2011, 'What motivates dentists to work in prisons?: A qualitative exploration' British Dental Journal, vol 211, no. 4, e7. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2011.682
Freeman, R, Gibson, B, Humphris, G, Leonard, H, Yuan, S & Whelton, H 2016, 'School-based health education programmes, health-learning capacity and child oral health-related quality of life' Health Education Journal, vol 75, no. 6, pp. 698-711. DOI: 10.1177/0017896915612856
Bernabe, E, Humphris, G & Freeman, R 2017, 'The social gradient in oral health: Is there a role for dental anxiety?' Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol 45, no. 4, pp. 348-355. DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12297
Honkala, S, Al-Yahya, H, Honkala, E, Freeman, R & Humphris, G 2014, 'Validating a measure of the prevalence of dental anxiety as applied to Kuwaiti adolescents' Community Dental Health, vol 31, no. 4, pp. 251-256. DOI: 10.1922/CDH_3425Honkala06
Nanjappa, S & Freeman, R 2013, Developing an inventory to Assess Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER): Phase 3 Report: Field trial of the PDCS using the CHATTERBOX intervention. University of Dundee, Dental Health Services Research Unit, Dundee.
Hill, KB, Chadwick, B, Freeman, R, O'Sullivan, I & Murray, JJ 2013, 'Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: relationships between dental attendance patterns, oral health behaviour and the current barriers to dental care' British Dental Journal, vol 214, no. 1, pp. 25-32. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2012.1176
Russell, M, Lazenbatt, A, Freeman, R & Marcenes, W 2004, 'Child physical abuse: health professionals' perceptions, diagnosis and responses' British Journal of Community Nursing, vol 9, no. 8, pp. 332-338.
Nunn, J, Freeman, R, Anderson, E, Carneiro, LC, Carneiro, MSA, Formicola, A, Frezel, R, Kayitenkore, J, Luhanga, C, Molina, G, Morio, I, Nartey, NO, Ngom, PI, Navarro, MFDL, Segura, A, Oliver, S, Thompson, S, Wandera, M & Yazdanie, N 2008, 'Inequalities in access to education and healthcare' European Journal of Dental Education, vol 12, pp. 30-39. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2007.00478.x
Abdelghany, A, Nolan, A & Freeman, R 2011, 'Treating patients with dry mouth: general dental practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and clinical management' British Dental Journal, vol 211, no. 10, E21, pp. -. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2011.966
Freeman, R, Reducing Prison Population Community, 2014, Web publication/site, Facebook.
Rutter, J, Cunningham, K, Holmes, R, Maguire, A, Innes, N, Douglas, G, Clarkson, J, Freeman, R, McColl, E, Robertson, M & Marshman, Z 2017, 'FiCTION Filling Children’s Teeth: Indicated or Not? Integrating Qualitative Research' Paper presented at IADR General Session, San Francisco, United States, 22/03/17 - 25/03/17, .
Freeman, R 2014, 'Summary of: school bullying and traumatic dental injuries in East London adolescents' British Dental Journal, vol 217, no. 12, pp. 688-689. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.1124
Chambers, S & Freeman, R 2011, Developing an inventory to Assess Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER): Year 2 Report: A validity and reliability study of the Parental Dental Concerns Scale. University of Dundee, Dental Health Services Research Unit, Dundee.
Freeman, R & Humphris, GM 2006, Communicating in Dental Practice:: Stress Free Dentistry and Improved Patient Care. Quintessence Publishing Co. Ltd, London.
Lynch, U, Lazenbatt, A, Freeman, R, Lynch, G & Neill, EO 2005, 'Making equity a reality: oral health promotion in a psychiatric setting' International Journal of Psychiatric Nursing Research, vol 10, no. 2, pp. 1078-1092.
Gorter, R, Freeman, R, Hammen, S, Murtomaa, H, Blinkhorn, A & Humphris, G 2008, 'Psychological stress and health in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools' European Journal of Dental Education, vol 12, no. 2, pp. 61-68. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2008.00468.x
Freeman., R., Chambers, S., Nanjappa, S., Fulke, S., and Lindsay, R. (2012) The Chatterbox intervention to enable children dental registration and attendance: Collaboration between dentistry and design. Faculty of Public Health Conference, 8-9 November, Crieff.
Freeman., R., Nanjappa, S., Chambers, S., Fulke, S., and Lindsay, R. (2012) Chatterbox: Customising services around dental health care. Childsmile Symposium, 19 September, Glasgow.
Herron, D., Menzies, R., Waller, A., Black, R., Quinn, S., Freeman, R., Zhou, Y., Humphris, G., Scott, L., Elliott, G. Involving Clinical Staff in the design of a support tool to improve dental communication for patients with intellectual disabilities. 16th Biennial Conference of ISAAC, July 19-24, 2014, Lisbon, Portugal. https://www.isaac-online.org/english/conference-2014/
Invited talks: 2006-2012
- Freeman R. Fruit juice, diet drinks and alcopops: strategies for erosion prevention. European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Amsterdam. The Netherlands. 2006
- Freeman R. Profile of a dentist in the oral health care team in countries with emerging economies. DentEd III. Krakow, Poland, 2006.
- Freeman R. Dental anxiety and dental phobia: identification and management. Annual Meeting of the Finnish Dental Association. Helsinki. Finland, 2006.
- Freeman R. Oral health care team in countries with emerging economies. DentEd III. Dublin, Ireland, 2007
- Freeman R. Dentistry and Psychoanalysis: strange bedfellows? University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2008
- Freeman R. Improving compliance: understanding and encouraging patient motivation. GSK-sponsored Symposium: International Association for Dental Research Miami, Florida 2009
- Freeman R. Development of the millennium oral health goals 2020: a theoretical and historical perspective National Symposium: ‘Millennium Oral Health Goals 2020: Revisiting the Road Map. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpar 2009
- Freeman R. The progress of the millennium global oral health goals in Scotland: how are the marginalized groups affected? National Symposium: ‘Millennium Oral Health Goals 2020: Revisiting the Road Map. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpar 2009
- Freeman R. Differentiating dental phobia from dental anxiety: strategies for dental practice. ‘Health and Society’ External Seminar Series, University of Bristol. Bristol. 2009
- Freeman R. Doing Best for Children: An emerging grounded theory of parents’ policing strategies to regulate between-meal snacking. Food, Oral Health and Social Interaction Workshop, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick. 2010.
- Freeman, R. Adhering with Childsmile: effects of maternal identity and social networks. University of Newcastle, Ourimbah NSW, Australia. 2012
- Freeman, R. Access to dental healthcare for socially excluded groups. BASCD Spring Presidential Meeting, London. 2012
- Freeman R. Managing dental anxiety: effective communication in dental practice. Oral Health and Communication Symposium. European Association for Communication and Health. University of St Andrews, St Andrews, 2012.
- Freeman R. From maternal concerns to the Chatterbox intervention: exploring adherence and increasing access to Childsmile Practice. Childsmile Symposium. University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 2012
- Freeman R. Differentiating dental anxiety from dental phobia: referral criteria for dentally anxious children and their parents? British Society of Paediatric Dentistry. Glasgow. 2012
- Freeman R. Behavioural aspects of health in the 21st century. British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry. Spring Presidential Meeting, Buxton. 2013
- Freeman R. The changing paradigm: a patient-centred approach for older people. NHS Education for Scotland: Dental Team Discovery Day Series. Dundee. 2013
- Freeman R. Occupational stress and depression. Northern Ireland Medical & Dental Training Agency: Let’s Talk Series. Belfast 2014
- Freeman R. Frightened of the Dentist: Dental observations and psychoanalytic explanations. Fife Psychiatric Teachin: Summer 2014. Cupar 2014
- Freeman R. Oral Health & Homelessness: an agenda for engagement? Homeless Action Scotland. NASUWT Edinburgh 2014
- Freeman R. Phobic services: who needs them? National Association for Dentistry in Health Authorities and Trusts, BDA London. 2014
Published Reports 2006-2012
- Chambers S, Turner S, Freeman R. Special Smiles Dental Project. Evaluation Report and Executive Summary. Dundee. DHSRU. 2009
- Chambers S, Freeman R. Developing an inventory to Access Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER 1): a qualitative exploration. Dundee. DHSRU. 2010
- Chambers S, Freeman R. Developing an inventory to Access Parental concerns and Enable child dental Registration (DAPER 2): A validity and reliability study of the Parental Dental Concerns Scale. Dundee. DHSRU. 2011
- Freeman, R., Wanyonyi, L.K., Humphris, G., Wright, A. The preliminary development of a Communication, cues and framing MIXed methods research programme to promote motivation and compliance for fluoride toothpaste use. ComMIX Interim Report. Dundee. DHSRU. 2010
- Chan, K.P.S., Bonner, B.C., and Freeman, R.E. NHS Highland: Modelling orthodontic treatment needs. Dundee. DHSRU. 2011
- Freeman R, Lush C. Richards D. Effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, acceptability and cost of dental therapist-hygienists working in remote-rural primary dental care. Dundee. DHSRU. 2012