Professor Samuel W Cadden

Emeritus Professor in Oral Biology

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s.w.cadden@dundee.ac.uk

Professor Sam Cadden graduated in Physiology and Dentistry at the University of Glasgow before undertaking his PhD at the University of Bristol under the supervision of Professor Bruce Matthews. Post-doctoral fellowships in Paris (as a Royal Society European Research Fellow) and Leeds followed before his arrival in Dundee as a Lecturer in Oral Biology in 1984. He was promoted to a Senior Lectureship in 1996 and to a Personal Chair in Oral Biology in 2002.

Professor Cadden, in addition to his work in Dundee, is currently the Associate Editor with responsibility for Review papers for the Archives of Oral Biology and is an Inspector for undergraduate degree programmes for the General Dental Council.

Professor Cadden has been involved in neurophysiological research throughout his career. His principal interests have been: (i) pain and nociception; and (ii) the control of jaw muscles. He has published extensively in both fields.

Since the 1980s, Professor Cadden has led a Research Team in Dundee studying the control of jaw muscles and other aspects of masticatory function. The team consists of staff and postgraduate students and has strong collaborative links with the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. Previous links have included ones with King's College London and the University of Glasgow. Dundee dental students "intercalating" honours science degrees have regularly been incorporated into the team with considerable success.

Professor Cadden is a member of a number of research organisations and, since 2011, has been the UK Senior Member and a Member of the Advisory Board of the international Society of Oral Physiology (Store Kro Group).

Professor Cadden has been involved in University teaching since 1978. Most of his teaching has been in the pre- and para-clinical components of undergraduate dental programmes (BDS) – particularly in Oral Biology, Physiology, Neuroscience & Biostatistics. He has also contributed regularly to other parts of the Dundee BDS programme as well as to undergraduate science programmes (in Physiology), postgraduate dental courses and continuing dental education.

From 1990 until 2012, Professor Cadden was responsible in a number of roles, for organising the 2nd year of the BDS programme in Dundee. During that time, he was largely responsible for promoting the highly successful "Intercalated" Honours Science Degree programme for dental undergraduates in Dundee.

In connection with his teaching, Professor Cadden has acted as an External Examiner in several other UK Dental Schools as well as in Schools in Hong Kong and France. He is a Fellow of the UK Higher Education Academy.

Since 2009, Professor Cadden has led a Dundee team involved in a Scotland-wide e-learning initiative funded by NHS Education for Scotland. The objective of the project has been to produce on-line materials which can supplement traditional teaching and learning techniques in dental education. In 2012, a web site entitled Scottish Dental Education On-line (SDEO) was launched to permit some of the learning resources from the project to be accessed on the world-wide web (see the 'External Links' tab).

Original Research Reports

Glas, H.W. van der, Cadden, S.W. & van der Bilt, A., Mechanisms underlying the effects of remote noxious stimulation and mental activities on exteroceptive jaw reflexes in man. Pain, 84, 193-202, 2000.

Scott B.J.J., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W., Voluntary and reflex control of the human temporalis muscle. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 29, 634-643, 2002.

Mason, A.G., Scott, B.J.J., van der Glas, H.W., Linden, R.W.A. & Cadden, S.W. Remote noxious stimuli modulate jaw reflexes evoked by activation of periodontal ligament mechanoreceptors in man. Experimental Physiology, 87, 699-706, 2002.

Mason, A.G., van der Glas, H.W., Jones, R.M. & Cadden, S.W. Differentiation of nociceptive- from stress-induced modulatory influences on human reflexes. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 145, 245–253, 2005.

Glas, H.W. van der, Bilt, A. van der, Abbink, J.H., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W. Functional roles of oral reflexes in chewing and biting: phase-, task- and site-dependent reflex sensitivity. Archives of Oral Biology, 52, 365-369, 2007.

Maillou, P. & Cadden, S.W. Characteristics of a jaw reflex in humans with temporomandibular disorders: a preliminary report. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 34, 329-335, 2007.

Mason, A.G., van der Glas, H.W., Scott, B.J.J. & Cadden, S.W. Dissociation of nociceptive modulation of a human jaw reflex from the influence of stress. Experimental Brain Research, 182, 81-91, 2007.

Mason, A.G., Newton, J.P. & Cadden, S.W. Modulation of an inhibitory jaw reflex by remote noxious stimulation: effects of spatial conditioning factors. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 115, 371–377, 2007.

Gardner, N., Mason, A.G., Newton, J.P. & Cadden, S.W. Differences between inhibitory jaw reflexes evoked by stimulation of tooth pulp and across the adjacent alveolar process in man. Archives of Oral Biology, 53, 575-582, 2008.

Maillou, P. & Cadden, S.W. The effects of a maximal jaw clench on an inhibitory jaw reflex. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 35, 415-423, 2008.

Maillou, P., Cadden, S.W. & Lobbezoo, F. The inhibitory effect of a chewing task on a human jaw reflex. Muscle and Nerve, 41: 845–849, 2010.

Ainine, S., Mason, A.G., & Cadden, S.W. Quantification of jaw reflexes evoked by natural tooth contact in human subjects. Archives of Oral Biology, 56, 855-863, 2011.

Scott, B.J.J., Mason, A.G., & Cadden, S.W. Forces, movements and reflexes produced by pushing human teeth. Experimental Brain Research, 218: 629-637, 2012.

Reviews

Le Bars, D., Gozariu, M. & Cadden, S.W., L’évaluation de la douleur aiguë chez l’animal d’expérience. Première partie. Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation, 20, 347-365, 2001.

Le Bars, D., Gozariu, M. & Cadden, S.W., Analyse critique des modèles animaux de douleur aiguë. Seconde partie. Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation, 20, 452-470, 2001.

Orchardson, R. & Cadden, S.W., An update on the physiology of the dentine-pulp complex. Dental Update, 28, 200-209, 2001.

Cadden, S.W. & Orchardson, R., The neural mechanisms of oral and facial pain. Dental Update, 28, 359-367, 2001.

Le Bars, D., Gozariu, M. & Cadden, S.W., Animal models of nociception. Pharmacological Reviews, 53, 597-652, 2001.

Lobbezoo, F., Trulsson, M., Jacobs, R., Svensson, P., Cadden, S.W. & van Steenberghe, D. Topical review: modulation of trigeminal sensory input in humans: mechanisms and clinical implications. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 16, 9-21, 2002.

Le Bars, D. & Cadden, S.W., Pain. In Whishaw, I.Q. & Kolb, B. (eds) The Behavior of the Laboratory Rat: a Handbook with Tests, Oxford University Press, Chapter 7, pp 69-80, 2004.

Cadden, S.W. Modulation of human jaw reflexes: heterotopic stimuli and stress. Archives of Oral Biology, 52, 370–373, 2007.

Le Bars, D. & Cadden, S.W. What is a wide-dynamic-range cell? In Basbaum, A.I. & Bushnell, M.C. (eds) The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference. Volume 5 – Pain, Elsevier, London, Chapter 25, pp 331-338, 2007/2008. (also published in Basbaum, Allan. I. & Bushnell, M. Catherine. (eds) Science of Pain, Academic Press Inc., Oxford & San Diego, pp 331-338, 2009).

Orchardson, R. & Cadden, S.W., Mastication and swallowing 1: Functions, performance and mechanisms. Dental Update, 36, 327-337, 2009.

Cadden, S.W. & Orchardson, R., Mastication and swallowing 2: Control. Dental Update, 36, 390-398, 2009.

Published Abstracts

Lobbezoo, F., Trulsson, M., Jacobs, R., Svensson, P., Cadden, S.W. & van Steenberghe, D., Modulation of trigeminal sensory input: mechanisms and clinical implications. Journal of Dental Research, 79, 158, 2000.

Abdel-Fattah, N., Newton, J.P., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W. Periodontally and intradentally evoked inhibitory jaw reflexes in man. Journal of Dental Research, 79, 408, 2000.

Mason, A.G, Newton, J.P. & Cadden, S.W., Asymmetry in the peripheral control of human jaw reflexes. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 27, 443, 2000.

Nakai, N., Graham, C.E.L. & Cadden, S.W., The masseter muscle and the postural position. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 27, 448-449, 2000.

Scott, B.J.J., Mason, A.G, & Cadden, S.W., Evidence for uniform control of the temporalis muscle. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 27, 453, 2000.

Mason, A.G., Scott, B.J.J., Linden, R.W.A., van der Glas, H.W. & Cadden, S.W., Modulation of a mechanoreceptive jaw reflex by remote noxious stimuli in man. Journal of Physiology, 531.P, 138P, 2001.

Lyons, M.F., Okdeh, A.M. & Cadden, S.W., Possible gender-related differences in a jaw reflex evoked by stimulation of the human lip. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 29, 887, 2002.

Mason, A.G., van der Glas, H.W., Scott, B.J.J. & Cadden, S.W., Differentiation of nociceptive- from stress- induced modulation of jaw reflexes. Journal of Dental Research, 82, C-538, 2003.

Chalmers, J., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W., Nociceptive modulation of human jaw reflexes: involvement of post-synaptic inhibition. Journal of Dental Research, 84 (Special Issue B): 0111 (British Division), 2005.

Mason, A.G., van der Glas, H.W. & Cadden, S.W., Nociceptive sensory thresholds during a gentle biting task. Journal of Dental Research, 84 (Special Issue B): 0186 (British Division), 2005.

Ballantyne, K.M.J., Chalmers, J., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W., Reflex inhibition of different levels of human masseter muscle activity. Journal of Dental Research, 84 (Special Issue B): 0187 (British Division), 2005.

Chalmers, J., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W. Susceptibility of masseter muscle activity to periodontally-evoked reflex inhibition. Journal of Dental Research, 85 (Special Issue A): 0978, 2006.

Mason, A.G., van der Glas, H.W & Cadden, S.W. Do any inhibitory jaw reflexes require activation of nociceptive nerves? Journal of Dental Research, 85 (Special Issue A): 0995, 2006.

Kidd, P., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W. Evidence for pre-synaptic inhibition in the modulation of oro-facial pain. Journal of Dental Research, 85 (Special Issue B): 0457 (Pan European Federation), 2006.

Marshall, F., Mason, A.G., van der Glas, H.W., Cadden, S.W. Voluntary responses to feedback signals in jaw reflex studies. Journal of Dental Research, 87 (Special Issue B): 3513, 2008.

Gardon-Mollard, G., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W. The consistent nature of the nociceptive modulation of jaw reflexes. Journal of Dental Research, 87 (Special Issue B): 3522, 2008.

Scott, B.J.J., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W. Forces, movements and reflexes produced by pushing human teeth Journal of Dental Research, 87 (Special Issue C): 0230 (Pan European Federation), 2008.

Atassi, M., Lyons, M.F., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W. Relaxation and contraction of human jaw muscles following lip stimulation. Journal of Dental Research, 87 (Special Issue C): 0231 (Pan European Federation), 2008.

Ainine, S.A., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W. Reflexes evoked by natural and extrinsic mechanical stimulation of teeth. Journal of Dental Research, 89 (Special Issue B): 3460, 2010.

Lyons, M.F., Atassi, M., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W., The slow onset of reflex reduction in biting force following stimulation of the lip in man. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 38, E11-E12, 2011.

Atassi, M., Lyons, M.F., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W., Mechanical properties of the lip-evoked inhibitory jaw reflex in man. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 38, E20, 2011.

Atassi, M., Griffin, T., Mason, A.G. & Cadden, S.W., Computer-based simulation of a practical class on jaw muscle control for undergraduate dental students. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 39, E3-E4, 2012.

Professor Cadden has lectured extensively both in the UK and abroad. He has spoken by invitation at Universities and/or Conferences in Belgium, France, the USA, Australia, Hong Kong and Syria.